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Local opposition to the authorities began to intensify in September 945, when Kharijite insurgents occupied Tunis, resulting in general pillaging.In 1048 the Zirid ruler Al-Muizz ibn Badis rejected his city's obedience to the Fatimids and re-established Sunni rites throughout all of Ifriqiya.

There are also some mentions in ancient Roman sources of such names of nearby towns as Tuniza (currently El Kala), Thunusuda (currently Sidi-Meskin), Thinissut (currently Bir Bouregba), and Thunisa (currently Ras Jebel).

As all of these Berber villages were situated on Roman roads, they undoubtedly served as rest-stations or stops. Because its culture and records were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War, very few Carthaginian primary historical sources survive.

Thus, during Agathocles' expedition, which landed at Cape Bon in 310 BC, Tunis changed hands on various occasions.

and that its population was mainly composed of peasants, fishermen, and craftsmen.

Exposed to violence from the hostile tribes that settled around the city, the population of Tunis repudiated the authority of the Zirids and swore allegiance to the Hammadid prince El Nacer ibn Alennas, who was based in Béjaïa, in 1059.

The governor appointed by Béjaïa, having reestablished order in the country, did not hesitate to free himself from the Hammadids to found the Khurasanid dynasty with Tunis as its capital.Early on, Tunis played a military role; the Arabs recognized the strategic importance of its proximity to the Strait of Sicily.From the beginning of the 8th century Tunis was the chef-lieu of the area: it became the Arabs' naval base in the western Mediterranean Sea, and took on considerable military importance.This small independent kingdom picked up the threads of trade and commerce with other nations, and brought the region back to peace and prosperity.The Almohad conquest marked the beginning of the dominance of the city in Tunisia.While there are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in North Africa, the main sources are Greek and Roman historians, including Livy, Polybius, Appian, Cornelius Nepos, Silius Italicus, Plutarch, Dio Cassius, and Herodotus.These writers belonged to peoples in competition, and often in conflict, with Carthage. The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as Grand Tunis, has some 2,700,000 inhabitants.Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea gulf (the Gulf of Tunis), behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette (Ḥalq il-Wād), the city extends along the coastal plain and the hills that surround it.Compared to the ancient ruins of Carthage, the ruins of ancient Tunis are not as large.According to Strabo, it was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC during the Third Punic War.

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