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Non sedating anti emetic

Anti-Convulsive: In CNS, indicated for treatment of petit-mal seizures, as it increases CO is thought to be the superior product.

Administered at bedtime, and it takes 1-2 days for the softened feces to pass through.

Not analgesic; in fact it increases awareness of pain. Can be used as adjunct therapy with anti-psychotics, to attenuate extra-pyramidal effects. Centrally acting anti-cholinergic used as adjunct therapy in Parkinson's, to inhibit cholinergic interneurons. Reduces action potential duration and shortens refractory period in purkinje fibers ------ improve slow conduction. Used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, epidural block. Anti-CHF: More popular of the two, because (1) faster acting and shorter duration, (2) Can be given IM or PO, and (3) blood levels can be monitored. Anti-Arrhythmic: It should be administered Causes hypotension, and is accompanied by less tachycardia than other alpha-antagonists, because it also has beta-antagonizing activity. Adverse Effects: orthostatic hypotension, bronchospasm, hepatotoxicity Given PO, for chronic anti-HTN treatment. May induce anginal attack or myocardial ischemia in patients with CAD, due to increased blood volume. May induce anginal attack or myocardial ischemia in patients with CAD, due to increased blood volume. Indications: (1) hypertensive emergencies, (2) acutely decompensated CHF, when the blood pressure is inadequate to perfuse brain and kidneys. Given IV, it is the fastest acting of the nitrate preparations. Anti-Arrhythmic: Treatment of Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia, Atrial Fibrillation. Anti-Arrhythmic: Treatment of Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia, Atrial Fibrillation. Given PO; undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism. Lipophilic, readily crosses BBB, used to treat migraines and other CNS disorders.Histamine receptors exhibit constitutive activity, so antihistamines can function as either a neutral receptor antagonist or an inverse agonist at histamine receptors.Histamine produces increased vascular permeability, causing fluid to escape from capillaries into tissues, which leads to the classic symptoms of an allergic reaction — a runny nose and watery eyes. Antihistamines suppress the histamine-induced wheal response (swelling) and flare response (vasodilation) by blocking the binding of histamine to its receptors or reducing histamine receptor activity on nerves, vascular smooth muscle, glandular cells, endothelium, and mast cells.Leukotriene antagonist; blocks Leukotriene receptors in bronchial smooth muscle. Especially effective against exercise-induced and aspirin-sensitive asthma.Adverse Effects: Headache, nausea, increased risk for infection. Can be beneficial to patient, to aid sleep or as anxiolytic.Sometimes used for its centrally-acting anti-cholinergic properties, as in an adjunct to anti-psychotic therapy.Partial seizure treatment, or as adjunct to grand-mal treatment.Itching, sneezing, and inflammatory responses are suppressed by antihistamines that act on H1-receptors.In 2014 antihistamines such as desloratadine were found to be effective as adjuvants to standardized treatment of acne due to their anti-inflammatory properties and their ability to suppress sebum production.They are sometimes also used to treat motion sickness or vertigo caused by problems with the inner ear.Antihistamines that target the histamine H receptors in the upper gastrointestinal tract, primarily in the stomach.

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