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Recently, diversity on the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) has been applied to the study of human history.

Since NRY is passed from father to son without recombination, polymorphisms in this region are valuable for investigating male-mediated gene flow and for complementing maternally based studies of mt DNA.

The frequency of haplogroup C3 among Japanese was only 1%.Two Jiangsu skulls showed spots where the front teeth had been pulled, a practice common in Japan in the Yayoi and preceding Jōmon period.The genetic samples from three of the 36 Jiangsu skeletons also matched part of the DNA base arrangements of samples from the Yayoi remains.The Korean males were characterized by a diverse set of 4 haplogroups (Groups IV, V, VII, X) and 14 haplotypes that were also present in Chinese.The most frequent haplogroup in Korean was Group VII (82.6%).The second most frequent haplogroup V in Korean was not present in Chinese, but its frequency was similar in Japanese.Source of study: Sunghee Hong, Seong-Gene Lee, Yongsook Yoon, Kyuyoung Song /University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-dong, Songpa-ku, Seoul, Korea Finally, the Y haplogroup chart below shows the relations between the various groups of Asia and their varying degrees of affinity or remoteness to each other.One branch of the haplogroup, A4, reaches levels of more than 15% among mitochondrial DNA samples collected in the city of Wuhan in central China Ancient mt DNA in Siberia Haplogroup A was widespread in Siberia in ancient times.One study of skeletal remains discovered near Siberia's Lake Baikal estimated the haplogroup was present in 13-26% of the region's population 7,000 years ago, and is almost exclusively among the Chukchi and the Yupik, two small indigenous groups from northeastern Siberia.Evidence is the haplogroup C3 (no subclade) occurs at moderately high frequencies among these populations.The above mt DNA studies relate to maternal line gene flow, the following Y chromosome study of male-mediated gene flow shows a slightly different picture but the sharing of the common haplotypes still reveal strong affiliations of both Japanese and Koreans to the Chinese and of the Japanese to the Koreans: Population studies of genetic markers such as HLA variation and mitochondrial DNA have been used to understand human origins, demographic and migration history.

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