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Type sites for this era include Avaris General Phase B/1, Tell el-Far’ah S.

The Nahas-Masos network, operating by the way of Mampsis/Kurnub, becomes operational, partially replacing the Timnah mine, and stays so to the end of the Iron Age.The Omride Kingdom, described in the Mesha stele as taking over Transjordan, almost certainly belongs in the Late Iron IIa, the first civilized phase of Iron Age Palestine and the age of the founding of Israelite Samaria, with Jezreel being a major site in this phase, as confirmed by the book of Kings. 930-910 BC]*, Aphek X9, Qasile XI and X (earthquake? 940 BC)*, Keisan 9a*, Kinneret VI [early] and V [rich regional center] and IV [poor non-urban settlement], Dan IVB*, Tyre XII.Shoshenq I’s list seems to date to the era before the Omride period, to the Early Iron IIa. )*, parts of Samaria PP 1/BP 0 [Shemer estate], Far’ah N. Pottery styles for this era include Degenerate Philistine Bichrome in Philistia in the earlier phase (disappearing from the rest of Canaan), “Middle Philistine” Decorated Ware (sometimes called “Ashdod”, not actually purely Philistine), and Phoenician Bichrome. First time Canaanite history can be connected with recorded history. Late Bronze IB-Essentially the Pre-Amarna Egyptian Empire Age (1458-1388 BC). 1580 BC)*, City of David 17**, Jericho Stratum I/City IVc, Gezer XIX [first wall, high place; Old III and II] and XVIII*, Timnah XI*, Beth-Shean XI/XB and XB and XA*, Megiddo XI, Hazor XVI/Lower City 3*. Hurrian migrations and Egyptian campaigns (of Ahmose I and Thutmose I) have been suggested. 1535 BC)*, Halif XI, Tell el-Hesi Cities Sub II (Stratum XIII, from c. ), Gezer XVII, Timnah X*, Jericho City IVc*, Mevorakh XII, Megiddo IX (to 1458 BC? Pottery styles include Elaborate Bichrome Ware, Black/Gray Lustrous Ware, and Chocolate on White Ware. 5000 BC) Type site include Motza Layer IV, Jericho Stratum IX/City IIa and Stratum VIII/City IIb***, Munhata Layer 2B. 3100 BC), Jericho Stratum VI/City IIIa2, City of David 20, Gezer XXV, et-Tell X and IX (Pre-Urban), Beth-Shean XIV, Megiddo XIX and XVIII***, Khirbet Kerak V. Type sites include Arad III [XV, fortifications] and II (XIV, to c. The first Khirbet Kerak Ware, spread by a migrating Urartian population, appears at its southernmost in the Jezreel-Jordan valleys. Type sites include Halif XIV and XIII and XII***, Mirsim J (Main Phase), Tell el-Hesi City Sub-I (Stratum XV), Jarmuth B-II, Jericho Stratum III/Cities IIIc1 and IIIc2, et-Tell III (Urban C)*, Beth-Shean XII, Megiddo XVI*, Khirbet Kerak Fortification B (Stratum II), Dan XIV, Leilan Period IIa. Type sites include Mirsim J, Tell el-Hesi City I (Stratum XIV), Gath E6, Jarmuth B-I (Palace B)/G-II and G-I***, Jericho Stratum III/City IIIc2***, Beth-Shean XI, Megiddo XV, Khirbet Kerak Fortification C (Stratum I)***, Tyre XX, Leilan Period IIb, Shahr-i Sokhta Period III/Phase 3. However, its large nomadic population required a constant supply of good weapons, which led to a flourishing bronze industry, tin-bronze being introduced to Palestine only in this age. Type sites include Tell el-‘Ajjul pre-Palace I, Mirsim G (poor)**, and F (poorer, first city wall), Jericho Stratum II/City IVa [new fortifications]*, Gezer XXII, Megiddo XIIIB and XIIIA and XII, Gesher (Phase II), Hazor XVIII (from c. 108) (31°39’48.52″N, 34°32’47.44″E) Phase 22 (captured and modified by Merenptah c. 4500 BC) Type sites include Motza Layer IV pit, Wadi Rabah, Munhata Layer 2A*** Beth-Shean XIX. Type sites include En Besor III, Arad IV (XVI when counting from latest settlement), Bab edh-Dhra IV (first structures)*, Erani C (to c. 2700 BC)-Due to contacts with Byblos, Egyptian trade with Canaan, very strong in the previous phase, rapidly tapers off, though South Palestine is still influenced by Egypt. Type sites include Halif XV* and XIV, Mirsim J, Tell el-Hesi Field VI Pre-City Sub-I (Stratum XVI), Jarmuth B-III/C-4, Jericho Stratum III/City IIIc1, et-Tell V and IV (Urban C), Beth-Shean XIII, Megiddo XVII, Khirbet Kerak III, Dan XIV, Leilan Period IIId. 2300 BC)-The Khirbet Kerak Ware producers’ peak, and also that of Canaanite civilization in the Bronze Age. Egyptian campaigns take place at the beginning of this phase, and climate tapers off rapidly toward its end. Since in it continue the Early Bronze pottery styles, and no Middle Bronze pottery appears, it cannot be called Middle Bronze I, as it sometimes is. 26, and here, or, possibly, burnt-off threshing floors made by the inhabitants of that same settlement), Lachish VIII (Fosse Temple II), City of David 16, Timnah (Tel Batash) VIIB and VIIA*, Ekron IX, Gezer XVI (old IV), Jericho Middle Building/City V***, Shechem XIII, Rehov D-9b and D-9a, Beth-Shean IX1*, Megiddo VIII and VIIB, Hazor XIV/Lower City 1B**, Dan VIIA (Mycenaean Tomb), Kumidi 12. Type sites include Avaris General Phase B/2, Deir el-Balah, Jemmeh LB II, Tel Haror B7, Tel Sera X, Tell el-Ajjul Palace V, Mirsim C2, Tell el-Hesi Sub-IV (Winepress, Stratum XI), Lachish VII (Fosse Temple III)*, Ashkelon Grid 38 (pg. Lack of a mention indicates a gap or a need for more information. At present, the Lachish and Megiddo standards are most commonly used by archaeologists for the Iron and Late Bronze ages. Type sites for this era include Qudeirat 4c, Nahas S4, Tel Masos IIIA and B, Mirsim B1, Tel Haror B4 and B3, Halif VIII*, Ashkelon Grid 38 Phases 20 B and A and 19, Gath Lower F2/A7/E4, “Giloh”, Ashdod XIIIB, City of David (fills) Ekron VII [Lower City re-inhabited] to VIB, Beitin Iron I Phases 1* and 2*, Izbet Sartah III, Shechem XI*, Dor Late Iron Ia Early (to c. Pottery styles include Philistine Monochrome (locally made Myc IIIC:1b, “Early-Middle”) in Philistia (almost) alone, in Greece, Myc IIIC:1c (“Late”), in Cyprus, Late Cypriot IIIA, and, in Palestine and N. Late Iron I-A period stretching from about 1030-the 920s BC. Ekron remained the most powerful city in Philistia, but was destroyed late in this phase, Ashdod and Timnah ceased to exist, Ashkelon and Gath continued, although Philistine presence overall is weakened throughout the rest of Canaan.The conquests of Hazael (late 9th C BC), mentioned in 2 Kings 13, are supposed to have destroyed numerous Late Iron IIa sites throughout the Galilee, Sharon, and Jezreel. 1000 BC)*, Ekron VA and IV (in IV, Philistine Bichrome ends), Heshbon 20 and 19, Gezer X and IX (old V) [Gezer Calendar, c. 940 BC)*, Yokneam XVIIB and XVIIA*, Abu Hawam IV*, Hadar V and IV (c. Lasts until about 1050 BC, by Finkelstein’s radiocarbon model. 19,500 BC) Type sites include Ohalo II, Late Kebaran/Nizzanean (c. Early Iron I-Strata contemporary with the first conquest of the Philistines and the settlement of the Israelites. Ekron becomes the most powerful city of Philistia, Gath second or third, Ashkelon fourth, and Ashdod fifth.

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